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caribbean sea average salinity

Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The highest average salinity amongst the following seas is reported from a) Dead Sea b) Red Sea c) Black Sea d) Mediterranean Sea. Salinity is the saltiness or measure of dissolved salt in water. The coral reef in Caribbean Sea is threatened due to the increased temperature of the sea because of global warming effect. Together with the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea has been erroneously termed the American Mediterranean, owing to the fact that, like the Mediterranean Sea, it is located between two continental landmasses. In the tropical waters of the Caribbean Sea the average temperature is 27°C and it varies no more than 3°C. • The salinity of surface sea water: •High (up to 37.5) in mid-latitudes due to net evaporation •Low at high latitudes (to ~33 above 40°N and S) and at the equator (~35) due to net precipitation Salinity Variability. To the south it is bounded by the coasts of Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama; to the west by Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico; to the north by the Greater Antilles islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico; and to the east by the north-south chain of the Lesser Antilles, consisting of the island arc that extends from the Virgin Islands in the northeast to Trinidad, off the Venezuelan coast, in the southeast. Most of those coral reefs are located in the Caribbean Islands and the Central American coast. The Caribbean Sea is enjoyed by locals and tourists alike, offering picturesque blue waters and welcoming snorkeling, scuba diving and boating … The existing sediment cover of the seabed consists of red clay in the deep basins and trenches, globigerina ooze (a calcareous marine deposit) on the rises, and pteropod ooze on the ridges and continental slopes. Salinity and ohlorinity are always reported as grams per kilogramof seawater. Near the end of the second phase, gentle warping and faulting occurred, forming the Aves and Beata ridges. Since the surface salinity increases northward, the vertical gradient is largest in the south, becomes very small by about The habitats supported by the reefs are critical to such tourist activities as fishing and diving, and There typically is a halocline This Caribbean bottom water also enters the Venezuelan Basin, thus introducing high-oxygen water at depths of 5,900 to 9,800 feet (1,800 to 3,000 metres). Salinity and Temperature The Location and Geography The average temperature of the Caribbean is 27°C and it varies no more than 3°C. User-10782194353917281852 is correct with his answer into which sea has the highest salinity, but just for some back ground the most saline water body at 44% is Don Juan Pond, located in Antartica it is a salt lake not a sea. By comparison, tap water has a salinity level of 100 parts per million (ppm). Near the equator, there is heavy rainfall, high relative humidity, cloudiness and calm air of the doldrums. Director, Florida Institute of Oceanography, St. Petersburg. The islands, which vary greatly in size, cover some 91,000 square mi (235,688 square km). Application of road salt in the United States has tripled since the 1970s, while other uses of salt have remained stable or decreased. The island of Jamaica is home to seals and manatees. Professor of Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa. The northeast trade winds dominate the region with an average velocity of 10 to 20 miles (16 to 32 km) per hour. Many James Bond adventures were set there. Toward fall in the northern hemisphere, salinity drops in the southeastern end of the Caribbean Sea, due to discharges from the Orinoco and Amazon River watersheds. Tropical storms reaching a hurricane velocity of more than 75 miles (120 km) per hour are seasonally common in the northern Caribbean as well as in the Gulf of Mexico; they are almost nonexistent in the far south. In 1963 one of the deadliest hurricanes on record, Flora, caused the loss of more than 7,000 lives and extensive property damage in the Caribbean alone. Login into Examveda with. Virtually all temperature extremes were associated with the phenomena of El Niño and La Niña. The habitats of almost all members of the toad family, poison dart frogs, tree frogs…. The Caribbean monk seal which lived in the Caribbean is considered extinct. North Atlantic deep water enters the Caribbean beneath the Windward Passage and is characterized by its rich oxygen content and by a salinity of slightly less than 35 parts per thousand. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The geologic age of the Caribbean is not known with certainty. The yearly average is about eight such storms. Chloride is a major component of dissolved solids. There are more than 7000 islands in the Caribbean, and they belong to over 28 distinct nations. The salinity of the Caribbean Sea is about 3.6%. The Caribbean’s greatest known depth is Cayman Trench (Bartlett Deep) between Cuba and Jamaica, approximately 25,216 feet (7,686 metres) below sea level. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? In the tropical waters of the Caribbean Sea the average temperature is 27°C (81°F) and it varies no more than 3°C. In the Caribbean 600 species of birds have been recorded of which 163 are endemic. Three phases of sedimentation have been identified. The Caribbean Beaches are without a doubt among the best in the world. It is estimated that 13 thousand species of plants grow in the Caribbean of which 6.5 thousand are endemic. The Aves Ridge, incomplete at its southern extremity, separates the Venezuelan Basin from the small Grenada Basin, which is bounded to the east by the Antillean arc of islands. Download : Download full-size image; Fig. The Caribbean Sea has an area of about 2,754,000 square km and it makes this sea one of the largest seas. It is bordered on the N and E by the West Indies [3] archipelago, on the S by South America [4], and on the W by the Central American isthmus. Caribbean Sea - Caribbean Sea - Economic aspects: While the vegetation of the Caribbean region is generally tropical, variations in topography, soils, rainfall, humidity, and soil nutrients have made it diverse. The warmest water temperature Caribbean Sea now is 28.2°C/82.8°F (in Panama City), and the coldest sea surface temperature today is 26.2°C/79.2°F (in Caracas). There are 170 species of amphibians that live in the region. Hope this helps!! During the months … Connections were established with the Pacific Ocean during the Cretaceous Period (from about 145 to 66 million years ago) but were broken when the land bridges that permitted mammals to cross between North and South America were formed in the Miocene and Pliocene epochs (about 23 to 2.6 million years ago). 3. The water of the Caribbean is warm, clear and has lower salinity levels than the neighbouring Atlantic. The salinityof seawat… Salinity is rather stable but areas in the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, South Pacific, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Mediterranean Sea … Globally, corals occur in a salinity range between 32 and 40 PSU (practical salinity units), although coral reefs also thrive in exceptionally high and low salinity conditions. The Caribbean coastline has many gulfs and bays: the Gulf of Gonâve, Gulf of Venezuela, Gulf of Darién, Golfo de los Mosquitos, Gulf of Paria and Gulf of Honduras. Salinity levels can affect the movement of ocean currents. Interesting facts about the Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, Interesting facts about Yorkshire Terriers. Fear Cay, the eleventh Doc Savage adventure by Lester Dent. its source is from the Gulf). Find out how deep your knowledge of oceans and seas goes with this quiz. Infrared satellite image of Hurricane Charley (right) approaching Cuba, Aug. 11, 2004. North Atlantic deep water enters the Caribbean beneath the Windward Passage and is characterized by its rich oxygen content and by a salinity of slightly less than 35 parts per thousand. It is bordered by Venezuela, Colombia and Panama to the south, Central American countries (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras and Belize) on the west; with the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico) on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the east. Coral reefs fringe most of the islands. It runs 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) along the coasts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras. Salinity map showing areas of high salinity (36 o/oo) in green, medium salinity in blue (35 o/oo), and low salinity (34 o/oo) in purple. The climate of the Caribbean generally is tropical, but there are great local variations, depending on mountain elevation, water currents, and the trade winds. Salinity is highest from January to May and lowest from June to December. The zone between 40 0 -60 0 latitudes in both the hemispheres records low salinity where it is 31 0 / 00 and 33 0 / 00 in the northern and the southern hemispheres respectively. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. THE CARIBBEAN SEA is a suboceanic BASIN in the western ATLANTIC OCEAN. Updates? The northernmost of these, the Yucatán Basin, is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by the Yucatán Channel, which runs between Cuba and the Yucatán Peninsula and has a sill depth (i.e., the depth of the submarine ridge between basins) of about 5,250 feet (1,600 metres). Rainfall varies from about 10 inches (25 cm) per year on the island of Bonaire off the coast of Venezuela to some 350 inches (900 cm) annually in parts of Dominica. Within 200 km from the Strait, the average salinity of PGW has decreased to 36.8. In the Caribbean Sea there are around 1,000 documented species of fish, including sharks (bull shark, tiger shark, silky shark and Caribbean reef shark), flying fish, giant oceanic manta ray, angel fish, spotfin butterflyfish, parrotfish, Atlantic Goliath grouper, tarpon and moray eels. The Caribbean has fewer hurricanes than either the western Pacific (where these storms are called typhoons) or the Gulf of Mexico. Forces producing the Panamanian isthmus and the Antillean arc were vertical, resulting in no ultimate horizontal movement. Such storms also have been a major cause of crop failure in the region. In winter, seawater with an average salinity of 34 (practical salinity units, roughly equivalent to parts per thousand) begins to freeze when its temperature drops to around -1.9°C (28.6°F). The nation with the most Caribbean islands is the Bahamas, with approximately 700 islands. The equatorial region of the Atlantic Ocean has a salinity of about 35. The highest average salinity amongst the following seas is reported from a) Dead Sea b) Red Sea c) Black Sea d) Mediterranean Sea. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The sea’s deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 meters (25,220 feet) below sea level. Sea water temperature all along the Caribbean Sea coast warms above 20°C/68°F and it is enough for a comfortable bathing. The porous limestone terraces of the islands are generally nutrient-poor. The average salinity of the oceans is 35 g of salt per litre of water, but there are significant regional variations in this value, as shown in Figure 18.13. Caribbean Sea, suboceanic basin of the western Atlantic Ocean, lying between latitudes 9° and 22° N and longitudes 89° and 60° W. It is approximately 1,063,000 square miles (2,753,000 square km) in extent. From there it divides to fill the Yucatán, Cayman, and Colombian basins at depths near 6,500 feet (2,000 metres). During the first and second phases the basin was free of deformation. The ancient sediments overlying the seafloor of the Caribbean, as well as of the Gulf of Mexico, are about a half mile (about one kilometre) in thickness, with the upper strata representing sediments from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras (from about 252 million years ago to the present) and the lower strata presumably representing sediments of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras (from about 541 to 66 million years ago). CUBA is by far the largest at 44,000 square mi (113,959 square km). As part of the Central American Sea, it is presumed to have been connected with the Mediterranean during Paleozoic times (i.e., about 541 to 252 million years ago) and then gradually to have separated from it as the Atlantic Ocean was formed. The data depicted shows average salinity from May 27 to June 2, 2012, in a range from 30 to 40 grams per kilogram, with 35 grams being the average. This is a list of bodies of water by salinity that is limited to natural bodies of water that have a stable salinity above 0.05%, at or below which water is considered fresh.. Water salinity often varies by location and season, particularly with hypersaline lakes in arid areas, so the salinity figures in the table below should be interpreted as an approximate indicator. In the tropical waters of the Caribbean Sea the average temperature is 27°C (81°F) and it varies no more than 3°C. The Central American Sea apparently became separated from the Atlantic before the end of the first phase. Within the boundaries of the Caribbean itself, Jamaica, to the south of Cuba, is the largest of a number of islands. These are the Yucatán, Cayman, Colombian, Venezuelan, and Grenada basins. The basins are connected by the submerged Aruba Gap at depths greater than 13,000 feet (4,000 metres). Port Antonio, on the northeast coast of Jamaica. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Of the water passing through the Yucatán Channel each second, only about one-fourth represents the deeper Subantarctic intermediate water. Annual variations in monthly average water temperatures at the surface do not exceed 3 °C (5.4 °F). The Caribbean Sea is located in the Atlantic Ocean, bordered by Central America and Mexico, the Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles, and South America's north coast. Surface currents, bearing both high- and low-salinity water depending on the source, enter the Caribbean mainly through the channels and passages of the southern Antilles. Of Biology, University of south Florida, Tampa melting influence surface salinity values ) or the Gulf,. And calm air of the largest seas and has an area of 35. Will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article in neither hydrology nor,! Which sections you would like to print: Corrections save my name,,... 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