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general carl spaatz ww2

General Carl Spaatz was the Commander of the Strategic Air Forces (which later became the U.S. Air Force) in Europe. on June 28, 1891. In May 1942 Spaatz became commander of the Eighth Air Force and transferred its headquarters to England in July. With the war's end, he was sent first to California and later Texas as the assistant department air service officer for the Western Department. Shortly after his arrival, Spaatz was also named commanding general of the U.S. Army Air Forces in the European Theater. In May 1929, Spaatz transitioned to bombers and was given command of the Seventh Bombardment Group. Flying over the Mexican desert, Spaatz was promoted to first lieutenant on July 1, 1916. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, American Civil War: Major General Carl Schurz. (1891–1974), World War II general.A 1914 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, one of the earliest U.S. military aviators, commanded a pilot training center in France during World War I.He also managed one tour at the front and shot down three aircraft. Arriving in June, he departed the following month to become commander of US Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Spaatz died on July 14, 1974, and was buried at the US Air Force Academy at Colorado Springs. Spaatz’s Oil Plan became the highest bombing priority in September 1944. Joining the 13th Squadron, he proved a skilled pilot and quickly earned promotion to flight leader. Gen. William "Billy" Mitchell and Maj. Gen. Mason Patrick 9 Selfridge Field, Michigan, early 1930s 18 Brig. We've created a quiz to test your ability to recognize military aircraft. C.V. Glines General Carl Andrew Spaatz is not well known by Americans today, yet he served as the senior air commander in the European theater after the United States entered World War II and masterminded the air strategy that helped defeat the Third Reich. Spaatz would come to command the overall Army Air Forces in Europe, design the strategy for bringing down Hitler’s Luftwaffe, and cripple Nazi war production. Tweet; Pin It; Buy this Cover; Inside this Issue; Email this Cover; Related Categories: World War II: General Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. American Civil War: Major General John Buford, Cold War: General Curtis LeMay, Father of the Strategic Air Command, Military Aviation: Brigadier General Billy Mitchell, Lieutenant General James Gavin in World War II, World War II: Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, World War II: Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, World War I: American Ace Eddie Rickenbacker, World War II: Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander, World War II: Marshal Arthur "Bomber" Harris, M.S., Information and Library Science, Drexel University, B.A., History and Political Science, Pennsylvania State University. Posted to the 1st Aero Squadron, Spaatz took part in Major General John J. Pershing's Punitive Expedition against Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa. Carl Andrew "Tooey" Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American World War II general and the first Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force. Spaatz was born in Boyertown, Pennsylvania, on June 28, 1891. With the exception of one month at the British front, Spaatz remained at Issoundun from November 15, 1917 to August 30, 1918. He was again sent to England to initiate the planning stages of the American Air Effort in Europe. There he supervised the final strategic bombing of Japan by the B-29, including the two atomic bomb missions. In May 1942 he commanded the Eighth Air Force and in July he was named commander of U.S. Army Air Forces in Europe. With the conclusion of the North Africa campaign, Spaatz became deputy commander of the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces. While there, he developed relationships with future subordinates such as Carl Spaatz and Ira Eaker. After brief tenure in this role, Spaatz took command of the Eighth Air Force and was charged with transferring the unit to Great Britain to commence operations against the Germans. Promoted to captain that same month, he soon began preparing to ship out to France as part of the American Expeditionary Force. (“Tooey”) Spaatz, one of the Great Captains of World War II and the first Air Force chief of staff, holds a fundamental place in the history of the United States Air Force. His critically significant career receives its due in this full biography by David R. Mets, a retired Air Force officer and former member of the Air Force History and Museums Program. Leaving the military, Spaatz served as a military affairs editor for Newsweek magazine until 1961. By March 1943 he took command of the Twelfth Air Force in North Africa as a temporary lieutenant general. General Spaatz received a temporary promotion to general on March 11, 1945, and was assigned to Air Force Headquarters in Washington, D.C., in June 1945. After graduating from West Point in 1914, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the infantry and assigned to the Schofield Barracks in Hawaii. Carl Andrew "Tooey" Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American World War II general and the first Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force. While Leigh-Mallory's 'Transportation Plan' won final approval from Eisenhower, Spaatz felt the best use of the strategic air forces was the continued systematic destruction of all German oil production. Spaatz felt that the best way to neutralize any German threat to a cross channel invasion was to launch an all out strategic bombing campaign against the oil production and industrial infrastructure of the Third Reich. General Carl A. With the Japanese capitulation, Spaatz was a member of the delegation that oversaw the signing of the surrender documents. Returning to Washington, he received an appointment as assistant to the chief of Air Corps, with the temporary rank of brigadier general. He became Chief of Staff of the newly-formed United States Air Force in 1947. General Carl Spaatz was the leading U.S. combat air commander in World War II. Promoted to the temporary rank of general on March 11, 1945, he remained in Europe through the German surrender before returning to Washington. Graduating in 1914, Spaatz was initially assigned to the 25th Infantry at Schofield Barracks, HI as a second lieutenant. Approved by: The Family of General Carl A. Spaatz, and The Spaatz Association, Inc. General Information. After leading the First Bombardment Wing, Spaatz was accepted at the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth in August 1935. General Carl A. Spaatz was the first chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C. While focusing on German industry, his bombers also hit targets across France in support of the Normandy invasion in June 1944. The B-52 mission reflects concern in Washington that Iran will order retaliation for the U.S. killing of Gen. Soleimani. George Marshall appointed General Carl Spaatz as head of the U.S. Eighth Air Farce. He went to England in 1940 as an observer in the position of an acting brigadier general. In March 1946, Spaatz succeeded General Arnold as commander-in-chief of the Army Air Forces. As commander of Strategic Air Forces in Europe in 1944, he successfully pressed for the bombing of the enemy’s oil production facilities as a priority over other targets. Four months later, following the retirement of General Henry Arnold, Spaatz was named the commander of the Army Air Forces. In this position he led the strategic bombing campaign against Germany. Leigh-Mallory's scheme for an interdiction campaign, known as the 'Transportation Plan', encompassed all Allied tactical and strategic air power with the singular purpose of targeting the rail systems linking France and Germany. One of the giants in the history of airpower, in 1929 Spaatz, together with another pilot, set an important flight endurance record of 150 hours and 40 minutes in the early days of aviation. Chris Boswell. In January 1944, he returned to Britain to become the commander of US Strategic Air Forces in Europe. In honor of the Air Force's birthday, we've put together this Air Force history quiz. He's a board member of the PA Chapter 8th Air Force Historical Society and also serves on the board of the Greater PA Military Vehicle Historical Society and … The highest Cadet Program award is the General Carl A. Spaatz Award and with it promotion to the rank of Cadet Colonel. The Air Force Has Big Plans for Its Flying Car in 2021, James Richardson, Soldier in Merrill's Marauders, Dies at 99, US Bomber Mission over Persian Gulf Aimed at Cautioning Iran, As Marines Plans Historic Joint F-35 Ops with UK, Air Force Looks for Ways to Follow Suit, Army Howitzer Makes History with 43-Mile Precision Shot, More than 70 West Point Cadets Accused of Cheating on Test, 'Into the Wild' Bus Airlifted out of Alaska Wilderness, Army Working on Drones that will Change Shape Mid-Flight, Lightning Academy: How Soldiers Train for Air Assault. Chris, aka "Gen. Spaatz," is a living history exhibitor/speaker and collector of WWII, Korea, Vietnam, & Cold War memorabilia. With the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Spaatz was temporarily promoted to colonel that November. When President Truman created the Air Force as an independent branch of the military in 1947, he appointed Boyerstown native General Carl Spaatz -- a veteran of two world wars and commander of the Strategic Air Forces in Europe during World War II -- as the first Chief of Staff. These raids brought the available fuel supply to dangerously low levels for the Luftwaffe. Dozens of West Point cadets are accused of cheating on an online math test earlier this year. Traveling to San Diego, he attended the Aviation School and graduated on May 15, 1916. 8th Air Force Headquarters opened in London under the command of General Carl A Spaatz on 19 June 1942. Carl A. Spatz was born at Boyertown, PA on June 28, 1891. In celebration of the Marine Corps' birthday, Military.com has put together this Marine Corps history quiz. The general was born in 1891, in Boyertown, Pa. Spaatz felt that the strategic bombing of aircraft factories and oil refineries was the quickest way to support an invasion and bring the Axis to its knees. He felt that the three target priorities for the strategic air forces should be: the German Luftwaffe, German aircraft production to include ball bearing manufacturing, and Axis oil production. With the expedition's conclusion, he transferred to the 3rd Aero Squadron at San Antonio, TX in May 1917. During his two months at the front, he downed three German aircraft and earned the Distinguished Service Cross. There his forces played an instrumental part in reducing Rommel's Afrika Korps and later in support of the invasion of Sicily. British Air Chief Marshal Arthur Tedder, General Bernard Montgomery, American Lieutenant General Carl Spaatz, and Major General Ralph Royce meeting at Montgomery’s headquarters in Blay, Normandy, France, 15 Aug 1944. 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