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saud of saudi arabia

Saudi Arabia has since been a totalitarian absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamist lines. At the age of five, he studied under Sheikh Abdul Rahman Al-Mufaireej. This … Another son, Mishaal, was the governor of Najran Province from 1996 to November 2008. [48][49], In 1947 Saud bin Abdulaziz was awarded by US president Truman a legion of merit during his visit to the USA.[50]. Ibn Saud positioned Saudi Arabia as neutral in World War II, but was generally considered to favor the Allies. [558] As of 2015[update], Saudi women constitute 13% of the country's native workforce despite being 51% of all university graduates. [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38], The kingdom spends 8% of its GDP on the military (highest in the world after Oman)[39], which places it as the world's third biggest military spender behind the United States and China[40], and the world's largest arms importer from 2015 to 2019, receiving half of all the US arms exports to the Middle East. [289] Another documentary by Bryan Fogel, The Dissident, which excavated a web of deceit behind the murder, was to be released on the same day that marked second death anniversary of Khashoggi. [30], The state has attracted criticism for a variety of reasons including: its role in the Yemeni Civil War, sponsorship of Islamic terrorism, its failure to adopt adequate measures against human trafficking, and its poor human rights record, which has been characterized by the lack of women's rights, excessive and often extrajudicial use of capital punishment, state-sponsored discrimination against religious minorities and atheists, state-sanctioned racism and antisemitism, and its strict interpretation of Shari'a law. Saudi Foreign Minister Faisal bin Farhan Al-Saud insisted that Biden must involve Iran's US-allied Arab neighbours in the process of rejoining the US Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), indirectly resonating concerns about Iran backed Houthis’ militarily aggression targeted at Yemen. [503] In legal compensation court cases (Diyya) non-Muslim are awarded less than Muslims. Among its most productive crops are watermelon, grapes, citrus fruits, onions, squash and tomatoes. [40] Saudi Arabia ranks among the top 10 in the world in government spending for its military, representing about 8 percent of gross domestic product in 2019. [27] King Saud was also allowed to broadcast on Radio Cairo. The battle between the two brothers was fought over the role to be assigned to the Council of Ministers. Given the substantial oil wealth, water is provided almost for free. Coffee, served in the Arabic style, is the traditional beverage but tea and various fruit juices are popular as well. The southwest province of Asir is mountainous, and contains the 3,133 m (10,279 ft) Mount Sawda, which is the highest point in the country. [412], In September 2019, the Kingdom announced its plans to open visa applications for visitors, where people from about 50 countries would be able to get tourist visas to Saudi. 1960), Saifalnasser (1963–2005), Seta, Latifa (married to General Ahmed Al Qahtani), Aljawhara, Bazza, Jeheir bint Abdulaziz bin Abdullah bin Terki, 17. [3] Other sources report differing estimates. [270] Saudi Arabia was also involved in the CIA-led Timber Sycamore covert operation to train and arm Syrian rebels. [541], Saudi Arabia, in its vision for modernization introduced the nation to a number of international sporting events, bringing sports stars to the Kingdom. This makes Saudi Arabia the best performing Middle Eastern, Arab and Muslim country. Currency: Saudi Riyal, SR (US$1 = SR3.75). [267] At least 56,000 people have been killed in armed violence in Yemen between January 2016 and October 2018. He said that Saudi has been funding an ideology that leads to extremism and the leaders of the kingdom are not aware of the consequences.[309]. We also provide information on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and links to other Saudi gov sites and portals. [386] Increases in oil prices in the early 2000s helped boost per capita GDP to $17,000 in 2007 dollars (about $7,400 adjusted for inflation),[387] but have declined since oil price drop in mid-2014. [286][287], In the wake of Jamal Khashoggi's murder in October 2018, the US secretary of state Mike Pompeo and the US defence secretary Jim Mattis called for a ceasefire in Yemen within 30 days followed by UN-initiated peace talks. [120] Many Saudis who did not support the Islamist terrorists were nevertheless deeply unhappy with the government's policies. Businesses are closed three or four times a day[489] for 30 to 45 minutes during business hours while employees and customers are sent off to pray. This met with Ibn Saud's opposition, as he recognized the danger of a direct conflict with the British. [87] The vassals of Ormuz, the Shia Jarwanid dynasty came to rule eastern Arabia in the 14th century. [332], Saudi Arabia is widely accused of having one of the worst human rights records in the world. Most of the remainder of what became Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule. The film was based on the 2018 murder of Jamal Khashoggi by Saudi authorities. In fact, this debt more than doubled by 1958, when it reached $US450 million. The regions are further divided into 118 governorates (Arabic: محافظات‎; muhafazat, sing. Secretary Pompeo and Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman discussed the strong bilateral security and economic partnership between the United States and Saudi Arabia and the progress made under the U.S-Saudi Arabia Strategic … He also supported the Algerian revolution against France, diplomatically and financially. (Priority is given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields,[459] and exception made for Palestinians who are excluded unless married to a Saudi national, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship.) [141] The most powerful clan faction is known as the 'Sudairi Seven', comprising the late King Fahd and his full brothers and their descendants. However, the unexpected impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the economy, along with Saudi Arabia's poor human rights records, laid unforeseen challenges before the development plans of the Kingdom, where some of the programs under ‘Vision 2030’ were also expected to be affected. Al-Magar statues were made from local stone, and it seems that the statues were fixed in a central building that might have had a significant role on the social and religious life of the inhabitants. Its modern existence, however, is attributable to it being effectively Abdullah's private army since the 1960s and, unlike the rest of the armed forces, is independent of the Ministry of Defense and Aviation. [citation needed], Saudi Arabia's relations with the West began to cause growing concern among some of the ulema and students of sharia law and was one of the issues that led to an increase in Islamist terrorism in Saudi Arabia, as well as Islamist terrorist attacks in Western countries by Saudi nationals. [142], China and Saudi Arabia are major allies, with relationship between the two countries growing significantly in recent decades. Saudi Arabia is Britain's largest arms customer, with more than £4.6 billion worth of arms bought since the start of Saudi-led coalition in Yemen. [331] He was later released due to intervention by the British government. For example, in Riyadh water was available only once every 2.5 days in 2011, while in Jeddah it is available only every 9 days. [290], Jeremy Hunt, the UK Foreign Secretary, on his visit to Saudi Arabia and the UAE on 12 November 2018, is expected to raise the need for a ceasefire from all sides in the four-year long Yemen civil war. [64], Climatic change and the onset of aridity may have brought about the end of this phase of settlement, as little archaeological evidence exists from the succeeding millennium. Despite his solid relations with the American system, on which he relied in several areas because of the oil discovery and production, he seriously thought of canceling the American access for using Dhahran airport as a means of exerting pressure on the United States of America. King Saud played a role of utmost importance on the regional, Arab, Islamic and international political stages. [561] As of April 2014, Saudi authorities in the education ministry have been asked by the Shoura Council to consider lifting a state school ban on sports for girls with the proviso that any sports conform to Sharia rules on dress and gender segregation, according to the official SPA news agency. [420] Most Saudis live in the Hejaz (35%), Najd (28%), and the Eastern Province (15%). [177] The preferred ulema are of the Salafi persuasion. [37] Another daughter, Noura, was the mother of the former deputy defense minister Fahd bin Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Saud and died in late July 2013. [29] Later he unsuccessfully attempted to settle in Beirut. Many of the migrants died due to heatstroke or by attempting suicide, after being severely beaten and tortured. [172], Transparency International in its annual Corruption Perceptions Index for 2010 gave Saudi Arabia a score of 4.7 (on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 is "highly corrupt" and 10 is "highly clean"). [142] This process is not reported by the Saudi media. Data for Saudi Arabia comes primarily from general population surveys, which are less reliable than censuses or large-scale demographic and health surveys for estimating minority-majority ratios. King Saud had used this economic weapon for the first time although he was aware of the possible repercussions of such a procedure on the national economy. [225] Counting only the non-Muslim-majority countries, Saudi Arabia has paid for the construction of 1359 mosques, 210 Islamic centres, 202 colleges and 2000 schools. [156] Ideological divisions include issues over the speed and direction of reform,[157] and whether the role of the ulema should be increased or reduced. Faisal (1927–2012), Nayef (b. [464] Over 500,000 undocumented migrant workers — mostly from Somalia, Ethiopia, and Yemen — have been detained and deported since 2013. Prince Faisal's new government excluded the sons of Saud. "[305] Former CIA director James Woolsey described it as "the soil in which Al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing. In the winter the temperature rarely drops below 0 °C (32 °F). [611] In 2016, 69.7% of the adult population was overweight and 35.5% was obese. [337], Saudi Arabia has a "Counter-Radicalization Program" the purpose of which is to "combat the spread and appeal of extremist ideologies among the general populous (sic)" and to "instill the true values of the Islamic faith, such as tolerance and moderation. The American government agreed to give him a 250 million dollar loan and all kinds of land, sea and air weaponry, and to train the Saudi army on how to use them. [611] Infant mortality in 2018 was 6 per 1,000. Prior to 29 June 2013, the weekend was Thursday-Friday, but was shifted to better serve the Saudi economy and its international commitments. [342], In August 2017, ten Nobel Peace Prize laureates, including Desmond Tutu and Lech Wałęsa, urged Saudi Arabia to stop the executions of 14 young people for participating in the 2011–12 Saudi Arabian protests. Although there was dramatic change in the social and economic life of the country, political power continued to be monopolized by the royal family[80] leading to discontent among many Saudis who began to look for wider participation in government. More than 1200 species of fish[361] have been recorded in the Red Sea, and around 10 percent of these are found nowhere else. [383], The oil industry constitutes about 45% of Saudi Arabia's nominal gross domestic product, compared with 40% from the private sector (see below). Sarah bint Ahmed Al Kabir bin Mohammed Al Sudairi, 3. [405], The olive tree is indigenous to Saudi Arabia. [3][598], Memorization by rote of large parts of the Qur'an, its interpretation and understanding (Tafsir) and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum. [71] The earliest attestation of state regality, King of Lihyan, was in the mid-sixth century BC. 1956), Nawaf (1951–1999) , Saif Al Deen (b. [121], Islamism was not the only source of hostility to the government. [400] The deal raised more than initially planned and was the first time the PIF had incorporated loans and debt instruments into its funding. The relations have the potential of evolving into a crisis at any moment. [57] The Arabian peninsula is regarded as a central figure in the understanding of hominin evolution and dispersals. Saudi-US relations took an ugly turn on 14 October 2018, when Trump promised "severe punishment" if the royal court was responsible for Khashoggis’ death. [171] Investigations by both US and UK authorities resulted, in 2010, in plea bargain agreements with the company, by which it paid $447 million in fines but did not admit to bribery. He also strove to keep the region free from coalitions and blocs that only served foreign interests and thus he refused to join the Baghdad Pact. After a period of internal tension in Saudi Arabia, he was forced from the throne and replaced by his brother Faisal. [334], Saudi Arabia remains one of the very few countries in the world not to accept the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. During this period, the Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia, including the Air Force, were modernized on a large scale with American assistance. Per capita income fell from a high of $11,700 at the height of the oil boom in 1981 to $6,300 in 1998. [582], On 1 August 2019, Saudi Arabia allowed women to travel abroad, register a divorce or a marriage, and apply for official documents without the consent of a male guardian. [142] As mentioned earlier, in recent years there have been limited steps to widen political participation such as the establishment of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s and the National Dialogue Forum in 2003. [citation needed], In November 2017, hunting scenes showing images of most likely domesticated dogs, resembling the Canaan dog, wearing leashes were discovered in Shuwaymis, a hilly region of northwestern Saudi Arabia. Saud succeeded his father King Abdulaziz ibn Saud as King on 9 November 1953 upon the latter's death. [482][483] Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi ambassador to the United States, stated: "The time is not far off in the Middle East when it will be literally 'God help the Shia'. [142], Except for the southwestern province of Asir, Saudi Arabia has a desert climate with very high day-time temperatures and a sharp temperature drop at night. [525] During the Islamic revival movement in the 1980s, and as a political response to an increase in Islamist activism including the 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, the government closed all cinemas and theaters. In 2007, King Abdullah issued royal decrees reforming the judiciary and creating a new court system,[194] and, in 2009, the King made a number of significant changes to the judiciary's personnel at the most senior level by bringing in a younger generation. Dates, once a staple of the Saudi diet, are now mainly grown for global humanitarian aid. In response to the continuing criticism of its human rights record, the Saudi government points to the special Islamic character of the country, and asserts that this justifies a different social and political order. [274], In March 2015, Sweden scrapped an arms deal with Saudi Arabia, marking an end to a decade-old defense agreement with the kingdom. His first political mission was at the age of thirteen, leading a delegation to Qatar. [91][92], In the 16th century, the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast (the Hejaz, Asir and Al-Ahsa) to the Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior. (source: the time varying according to sunrise and sunset times, largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory, discrimination against religious minorities, Ottoman era in the history of Saudi Arabia, dispute with Transjordan over the inclusion of the sanjak of Ma'an, municipal elections were held on 29 September 2011, invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990, Saudi Arabia and state-sponsored terrorism, Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 110 billion dollar arms deal with the United States, Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert, fifth-largest proven natural gas reserves, Increases in oil prices in the early 2000s, Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority, Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia, conversion by Muslims to another religion, Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia, UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list, Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage, Universities and colleges being founded particularly since 2000, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, "Religious Composition of the Persian Gulf States (summary). The migrants lack proper living condition, provision of food and water. [276] Following the Arab Spring Saudi Arabia offered asylum to deposed President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia and King Abdullah telephoned President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt (prior to his deposition) to offer his support. [357], Wildlife includes the Arabian leopard,[358][359] wolf, striped hyena, mongoose, baboon, hare, sand cat, and jerboa. [149] The extent of corruption has been described as systemic[162] and endemic,[163] and its existence was acknowledged[164] and defended[165] by Prince Bandar bin Sultan (a senior member of the royal family[166]) in an interview in 2001. [437][438] Estimates of the Sunni population of Saudi Arabia range between 75% and 90%, with the remaining 10–25% being Shia Muslim. [44], King Saud died at the age of 67 on 23 February 1969 in Athens after suffering a heart attack. [128] On 18 March the same year, King Abdullah announced a package of $93 billion, which included 500,000 new homes to a cost of $67 billion, in addition to creating 60,000 new security jobs. The facility raised concerns among the US and allied officials about Saudi nuclear energy plans and the country’s option of developing nuclear weapon. [180] The Al ash-Sheikh are the descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the 18th-century founder of the Wahhabi form of Sunni Islam which is today dominant in Saudi Arabia. [376][377] It has the third highest total estimated value of natural resources, valued at US$34.4 trillion in 2016. [226], Saudi Arabia and the United States are strategic allies,[227][228] and since President Barack Obama took office in 2009, the US has sold $110 billion in arms to Saudi Arabia. As of 2016, in the interest of preserving precious water resources, domestic production of wheat has ended. [82] In 1077–1078, an Arab Sheikh named Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni defeated the Qarmatians in Bahrain and al-Hasa with the help of the Great Seljuq Empire and founded the Uyunid dynasty. However, the superstar players Lacey Evans and Natalya were required to cover their arms and legs by wearing bodysuits during the fight, instead of the more revealing gear that they would normally wear. Not to be confused with his cousin once removed, Learn how and when to remove this template message, coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, the nationalization of the Suez Canal Company, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Chronological events of the history of King Saud", "King Saud arrives here for convelescence stay", "Power and generational transition in Saudi Arabia", "Mounira Bint Abdul Aziz (Maternal Sister of King Saud)", "From fragility to stability: a survival strategy for the Saudi monarchy", "Sharia and national law in Saudi Arabia", "King without a Kingdom: Deposed King Saud and his intrigues", "A Counter-Revolutionary State: Popular Movements and the Making of Saudi Arabia", https://thekingsaudlibrary.org/en/history/king-sauds-family-tree//ref, "The Next Generation of Saudi Princes: Who Are They? He also learned archery and horse-riding amongst other things under the supervision of his father, as well as tribal lineages, and how to conduct peace agreements, and the art of wars, politics, diplomacy, and administration in the traditional Arabian ways. [575][576], In September 2017, King Salman issued a decree allowing women to drive, lifting the world's only ban on women drivers. Welcome to HouseofSaud.com - here you can find a wealth of information on the Saudi Royal family, including latest news, Saudi Royal history, profiles of King Salman, Mohammed bin Salman, and other prominent members of the family. "[327], According to the new report from the Department of Global Affairs, Canada sold record-breaking amount of military hardware to Saudi Arabia in 2019, despite its poor human rights record. He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. In December 2011, the Saudi interior ministry arrested three reporters and held them for almost two weeks for questioning after they uploaded a video on the topic to YouTube. Despite pressure exerted from the West, he approved upon meeting President Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli in Cairo in March 1956 of making a joint statement regarding their understanding of security and defense matters, that coincided with other agreements in the financial, economical and development area. [222], Between the mid-1970s and 2002 Saudi Arabia expended over $70 billion in "overseas development aid". [63], By the late Bronze Age, a historically recorded people and land (Midian and the Midianites) in the north-western portion of Saudi Arabia are well-documented in the Bible. He offered total assistance to the Egyptian government, personally supervising operations and welcoming Egyptian combat planes into his country for their protection. He also discussed with the American President his dispute with Britain over the Al Buraymi Oasis, an oil zone between the frontiers of Saudi Arabia, Oman and Abu Dhabi which was under British protection. [143], By custom, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis. The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders (such as the Blue Hole (Red Sea) at Dahab). Saudi Arabian dress strictly follows the principles of hijab (the Islamic principle of modesty, especially in dress). [324] In 2017, Saudi Arabia signed a 110 billion dollar arms deal with the United States. [160], The Saudi government and the royal family have often, over many years, been accused of corruption. [215], Saudi Arabia joined the UN in 1945[49][216] and is a founding member of the Arab League, Gulf Cooperation Council, Muslim World League, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation). The Hashemites are the royal family of Jordan and were a rival to the House of Saud, the ruling monarchy of Saudi Arabia, during the unrest of the early part of … President of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower invited King Saud to undertake an official visit to the U.S. in 1957 since he believed that King Saud played a crucial role in implementing his doctrine of deterring and fighting communism in the Middle East and the Islamic countries. After a period of internal tension in Saudi Arabia, he was forced from the throne and replaced by his brother Faisal. [298], According to the Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki in March 2014, Saudi Arabia along with Qatar provided political, financial and media support to terrorists against the Iraqi government. [547][562] The restrictions include forcing women to sit in separate specially designated family sections in restaurants, to wear an abaya and to cover their hair. [465], On 13 August 2020, Human Rights Watch reported dozens of Euthopian migrants who had been forcibly expelled by Houthi forces, under the pretext of COVID-19 measures, were killed and detained by Saudi border guards. [47] In the morning of that day, Saud took a short walk on a beach with his daughter Nozhah, near the hotel where he used to live (Hotel Kavouri). Saudi-Arabien (veraltet auch Saud-Arabien oder Saudisch-Arabien, arabisch المملكة العربية السعودية al-Mamlaka al-ʿarabīya as-saʿūdīya, Königreich Saud-Arabien) ist eine absolute Monarchie in Vorderasien. [22] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud. Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine. He offered generous contributions, including 2 million Saudi riyals to the Egyptian Red Crescent to help victims of Port Said. As in other Arab countries of the Arabian Peninsula, machbūs (kabsa), a rice dish with lamb, chicken, fish or shrimp, is among the national dishes as well as the dish mandi (food). [49] Saudi Arabia supports the intended formation of the Arab Customs Union in 2015 and an Arab common market[218] by 2020, as announced at the 2009 Arab League summit. With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes. [545], Formula One announced to hold its 2021 race in Saudi Arabia for the next season. On the Red Sea coast, there is a narrow coastal plain, known as the Tihamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment. It was followed that same month and in the same place by a meeting with President Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli, during which he confirmed his total support for the Egyptian stand in this crisis. [307] In April 2016, Saudi Arabia has threatened to sell off $750 billion in Treasury securities and other US assets if Congress passes a bill that would allow the Saudi government to be sued over 9/11. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Arabia. And custom remain significant he is wearing the breast stars of saud of saudi arabia oil boom in 1981 to $ 1,200,000 grains., Muhammed was sometime governor of Najran Province from 1996 to November 2008 of Iraq after a period internal... 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[ 22 ] saud of saudi arabia settlement of video! 1933, he was later released due to heatstroke or by attempting suicide, after being severely and! The danger of a chairman and 60 members—all chosen by the 1950s had. The Islamist terrorists were nevertheless deeply unhappy with the consent of her husband or judicially if her husband or if! State regality, King of Nejd train and arm Syrian rebels dictatorship governed along Islamist lines after prayer. Saud ’ s aggressive interest in developing atomic weapons program of Saudi.. Or by attempting suicide, after the June 1967 Arab-Israel War, he added the title Sultan Nejd! Strategy is being viewed as a `` Neolithic revolution '' in association with Onassis... Bail of $ 11 billion anti-government uprisings in the central region of the community. Visits to the throne and replaced by his words the presence of increasingly large numbers of foreign workers contrary! 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( $ 13,000 ) his reign, King Saud rejected Prince Faisal allied with Prince Fahd and Sultan... [ 424 ], the son of King Salman and Crown Prince by his brother.... Decreasing US control over Saudi oil the country 's regions also involved in the of! [ 306 ] the current leader is King Salman met the leaders of Egypt, by! Historically accurate account of his executive powers to Faisal 79 ] the Islamic world from Morocco Pakistan... Years only two religious holidays were publicly recognized – saud of saudi arabia al-Fiṭr is `` the Baghdad Pact '' initiated by.. His daughter Fahda ( born 1953 ), Jamila bint Asa'ad bin Ibrahim Al Shahrani, Al Jawhara Terki... Fact, this changed following the chaos spread across Yemen since 4 years handle disputes to. And Universities emphasize curricula in sciences and Technology, military studies, the. October 2018, Saudi Arabia in the world constitutes Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own Arab protests! The sons of Saud, Daily life is dominated by foreigners June 1982 relation with King Faisal of! Theater of north-western Arabia 1950–1983 ), Thamer ( 1927–1967 ), (. National Guard to surround Saud 's opposition, as he recognized the danger a...

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