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sweet chestnut bark

Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. Nevertheless, centuries-old specimens may be found in Great Britain today. Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide, Foraging for natural Christmas decorations, Top tips for an eco-friendly and sustainable Christmas. [24], Three different cultivation systems for the sweet chestnut can be distinguished:[25], The field management is dependent on the cultivation system. [6] The oblong-lanceolate, boldly toothed leaves are 16–28 cm (6–11 in) long and 5–9 cm (2–4 in) broad. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF … Sweet chestnut trees live to an age of 500 to 600 years. 2013;2013:471790. doi: 10.1155/2013/471790. Sweet chestnut can be a large tree up to 30 m in height, with a single trunk but is often coppiced to form a shrub of many straight poles. Flora Europaea: Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees, colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks, "The Chestnut: A Multipurpose Resource for the New Millennium", "Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut", "The Cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) [17][18] Contrary to that notion, other scientists found no indication of the Romans spreading C. sativa before the fifth century. Article by Ursula Stopka. There are three harvesting techniques: The total world chestnut harvest was 1,17 Mio Tons in 2006, but only 151 000 Tons were C. Also, the capsule makes the harvest more complicated and even painful for the worker. Images © protected Woodland Trust. June 2020. The trunk is mostly straight with branching starting at low heights. [21] Nowadays, sweet chestnut production is sometimes seen at a turning point again, because the development of high-value sweet chestnut products combined with changing needs of an urban society is leading to a revival in C. sativa cultivation. [46] Generally, glucose content in European chestnuts is very low and ranges from zero to traces. Bark - sweet chestnut (C. sativa) Its bark is smooth when young, [22] of a vinous maroon or red-brown color for the American chestnut, [13] grey for the European chestnut. Appearance Waney edge boards of sweet chestnut will be supplied with wane (bark) on one or two edges. However, setting up the nets is work intensive. [3] Some selected varieties are smaller and more compact in growth yielding earlier in life with different ripening time: the Marigoule, the Marisol and the Maraval. After a year, the young trees are being transplanted.[25]. [54] The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. 8 no. Gardeners Dictionary ed. Under forest conditions, it will tolerate moderate shade well. [22] Italy, France, southern Switzerland, Spain, Portugal and Greece are countries with a strong sweet chestnut tradition, with trees cultivated intensively in coppices and orchards. [16], Clues in art and literature indicate a dislike of the sweet chestnut by the Roman aristocracy. [25] Optimal precipitation is between 400 and 1600 mm. [8], The ornamental cultivar C. sativa 'Albomarginata'[56] has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit, Media related to Castanea sativa at Wikimedia Commons, The examples and perspective in this article. [12], Similar to the introduction of grape vine and olive cultivation to the Latin world, C. sativa is thought to have been introduced during the colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks. C. sativa attains a height of 20–35 m (66–115 ft) with a trunk often 2 m (7 ft) in diameter. It has a straight grain when young but this spirals in older trees. The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. Tannins, when taken in controlled amounts, can relieve you from Diarrhea. Cooking dry in an oven or fire normally helps remove this skin. Sweet Chestnut produces nuts in warm summers. cultivation in Roman times: New data from ancient Campania", "Distribution and economic potential of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) They are used for flour, bread making, a cereal substitute, coffee substitute, a thickener in soups and other cookery uses, as well as for fattening stock. Roast chestnuts are traditionally sold in streets, markets and fairs by street vendors with mobile or static braziers. Mechanical: The fruits are collected with a machine that works similarly to a vacuum cleaner. Sweet chestnut and specifically the chestnut tree bark are found to be a very effective remedy for Diarrhea. [39][40] Sweet chestnut is a good source for starch,[41]; chestnuts of all varieties generally contain about the same amount of starch. Discover our recent challenges and successes and how you can help. It grows long catkins, the remains of which stay attached to the husk until they fall off. [49] Responsible for the aromatic characteristics of cooked chestnuts is the effect of degradation of saccharides, proteins and lipids, the caramelization of saccharides and the maillard reaction that is reducing sugar and amino acids. Examples can be seen particularly in the London Boroughs of Islington and Camden. The product is sold as a sweetened paste mixed with vanilla, crème de marrons [fr], sweetened or unsweetened as chestnut purée or purée de marron, and candied chestnuts as marrons glacés. You can’t id the tree from a distance by its shape but if you look closely at the bark, buds and shoots and then look for old leaves and old fruit underneath the tree, you can be sure that it is a Sweet Chestnut. Sweet chestnut has been found to be susceptible to fungal diseases. Sweet chestnuts roasting on an open fire at Christmas, whilst in the kitchen preparations are under way in making chestnut stuffing. Hyd-rolysis of sweet chestnut tannins leads to the formation of two important phenolic acids: gallic and ellagic acid. These old trees provide us with our classic Christmas nut. Sweet Chestnut bark seating Whilst running the intro to green woodworking course we took the time to peel the bark from the sweet chestnut logs before riving them down, with the aim of using it for weaving, principally for seating the chairs that I will be making this summer. The pictures are pretty informative and there is a separate gallery of all the pictures related to this. [12] Like Theophrastus, Latin authors are sceptical of the sweet chestnut as a fruit, and Pliny the Elder even goes as far as admiring how well nature has hidden this fruit of apparently so little value. They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. The bark is radially crossed as it ascends the trunk. We want to make sure everyone in the UK has the chance to plant a tree. Doing so is time-saving and economical, but it's possible that some fruits get injured, and a big initial investment is needed. Flowers and Fruits. The two major fungal pathogens of the sweet chestnut are the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and the ink disease caused by Phytophthora cambivora and Phytophthora cinnamomi. After pollination by insects, female flowers develop into shiny, red-brown fruits wrapped in a green, spiky case. Its bark can be recognised from its long diagonal fissures. [30] As an alternative to water curing, hot water treatment is also commercially used. The other native trees that bloom late in the year around the same time as American chestnuts are Black Locust and Sourwood. [14] Further clues pointing to this theory can be found in the work of Pliny the Elder, who mentions only Greek colonies in connection with sweet chestnut cultivation. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 05:04. In the past, its characteristic and nutritional components gave sweet chestnut an important role in human nutrition due to its beneficial health effects. The most widespread treatment before storage is water curing, a process in which the sweet chestnuts are immersed in water for nine days. Spiral fissures may develop on old trunks; the bark is brown. This Spring and Summer we have been experimenting with some of the uses of the bark from Sweet Chestnut Trees and wish to share some of our findings. Long, yellow catkins of mostly male flowers, with female flowers at the base. Sweet chestnut bark is a superb material to make baskets with being both strong and flexible. The Woodland Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales (No. The bark resembles a large twisted steel cable. How Sweet Chestnut is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. The optimal average temperature is between 8 °C and 15 °C[25] and in January the temperature should preferably not be below -1 °C[27] but it may tolerate temperatures as low as -15 °C. The trees begin to bear fruit when they are around 25 years old. Phytophthora cambivora caused serious damage in Asia and the US, and it still continues to destroy new plantations in Europe. They can develop vast girths which can reach up to 2m in diameter. [35][38] The fat content is very low and is dominated for the most part by unsaturated fatty acids. In the northern hemisphere, they appear in late June to July, and by autumn, the female flowers develop into spiny cupules containing 3-7 brownish nuts that are shed during October. Broadening with age, this tree can reach up to 40 metres in height. in Europe", "Projektstudie: Die Edelkastanie auf Obstwiesen - Eine Alternative zum Kirschanbau? All sweet chestnut will be ancient from 400 years onwards, although many will have ancient characteristics from around 300 years. The remains of the male catkin stay attached to the husk until it falls off. However, even after heating sweet chestnuts, antioxidant activity remains relatively high. Nevertheless, roasted or boiled chestnuts may still be a solid vitamin C source, since 100 gram still represent about 20% of the recommended daily dietary intake. Twigs are purple-brown and buds are red-brown and oval in shape. Weird Trees Sweet Chestnut Magical Tree Unique Trees Old Trees Tree Trunks Nature Tree Big Tree Tree Forest. Mature trees can reach up to 35m in height. Chestnut blight has recently arrived in the UK, which causes bark cankers and can lead to dieback and death. Gnarled bark of old sweet chestnut tree trunk (Castanea sativa) in green woodland, National Forest, Derbyshire, England, UK Detail of the bark of a horse chestnut tree eroded by time, with textures and scratches on the background. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. The leaves are completely different, with sweet chestnut having single, long, serrated leaves and horse chestnut having hand-shaped leaves with deeply divided lobes or ‘fingers’. A sugar can be extracted from them. Raw horse chestnut seed, bark, flower, and leaf are UNSAFE and can … Their high level of starch is similar to that of wheat and twice as high as the potato. The tree is to be distinguished from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. It is native to Southern Europe but has now become common on light non-chalky soils throughout Britain. [37] Various composition and health studies have shown its big potential as a food ingredient and functional food. Sep 19th, 2011 by Richard. [42] The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ (213 kcal). In general, the climate should be similar to viticulture. The flowers provide an important source of nectar and pollen for bees and other insects, while red squirrels eat the nuts. It is a species introduced to the UK and widely planted and extensively naturalised , especially on … They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. The fruit contains significant amounts of a wide range of valuable nutrients. [47][50] Vitamin C significantly decreases between 25-54 % when boiled and 2-77 % when roasted. Sweet chestnut is found commonly throughout woods and copses in Britain. The leaves also contain tannin. [41] Organic acids are thought to play an important role against diseases as an antioxidant. [43] C. sativa is characterized by high moisture content which ranges from 41% to 59 %[44] and a considerable level of starch (≈40 g 100 g−1 dry matter). It is used to make furniture, bar… Explore wrightrkuk's photos on Flickr. [19] While the husks of sweet chestnuts, dated to the third or early fourth century, have been identified from the bottom of a Roman well at Great Holts Farm, Boreham, UK; this deposit includes remains of other exotic food plants and provides no evidence that any of them originated locally. [6], C. sativa is found across the Mediterranean region, from the Caspian Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), which has similar nuts, but those of the sweet chestnut are smaller and found in clusters. [4] In cultivation they may even grow as old as 1000 years or more. [12] Today's phylogenetic map of the sweet chestnut, while not fully understood, shows greater genetic similarity between Italian and western Anatolian C. sativa trees compared to eastern Anatolian specimen, reinforcing these findings. A substantial, long-lived deciduous tree, it produces an edible seed, the chestnut, which has been used in cooking since ancient times. The water in which you boil the chestnuts along with its shell or bark is rich in Tannins. Young trees can also suffer from squirrel damage. Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against. A newer but more reliable source are the literary works of Ancient Greece, with the richest being Theophrastus’ Inquiry into plants written in the third century B.C. The tree requires a mild climate and adequate moisture for good growth and a good nut harvest. The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. Researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Ghent in Belgium studied the use of tannins to control Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs (Van Parys A. et al, 2009).The aim of this study was to determine whether a hydrolysable tannin extract** of sweet chestnut wood has an inhibitory … The sugar content is also affected by the high temperatures. The Romans ground sweet chestnuts into a flour or coarse meal.Sweet chestnuts are a rich source of vitamins C (the only nut that is) and B, and minerals including magnesium, potassium and iron. While cleaning the soil from the leaves and pruning is the norm, the use of fertilizer, irrigation and pesticides is less common and reserved for more intensive cultivation. [10], Another serious pest which is difficult to control is the gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphylus) which was recently introduced in Southern Europe, originating from Asia. Sweet chestnut. In other European countries, C. sativa has only been introduced recently, for example in Slovakia or the Netherlands.[22]. Image of form, branch, figure - 129117383 Sweet Chestnut Bark. Find the perfect sweet chestnut tree bark stock photo. However, according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer". The leaves provide food for some animals, including Lepidoptera such as the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella and North American rose chafer Macrodactylus subspinosus. Most sweet chestnut is consumed in processed form, which has an impact on the nutrient composition. The female flowers eventually form a spiky sheath that deters predators from the seed. Sweet chestnut bark extract is particularly rich in tannins; therefore, we have investigated the ability of the extract to protect cultured cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress. [26], The sweet chestnut tree grows well on limestone-free, deeply weathered soil. Instead, fructose is mostly responsible for the sweet taste. Its year-growth (but not the rest of the tree)[8] is sensitive to late spring and early autumn frosts, and is intolerant of lime. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. With age, American species' bark becomes grey and darker, thick, and deeply furrowed ; the furrows run longitudinally, and tend to twist around the trunk … Note: sweet chestnut should not be confused with horse chestnut (the conker tree) whose wood is white in colour and inferior for joinery purposes. [13] The first charcoal remains of sweet chestnut only date from around 850-950 B.C., making it very difficult to infer a precise origin history. Sweet chestnuts are a rich source of vitamin C. The flowers provide nectar for bees and other insects. [27] The maximal altitude is strongly dependent on the climate. ... Bark. Chestnuts are highly nutritious and therefore helpful during convalescence. Credit: Yon Marsh Natural History / Alamy Stock Photo. Four processes are decisive for the degrading process of sugar while cooking: hydrolysis of starch to oligosaccharide and monosaccharide, decomposition of sucrose to glucose and fructose, caramelization of sugars and degradation of sugars. Long-distance spread of C. parasitica can occur through movements of infected sweet chestnut plants, wood or bark in trade.Once bark has been colonised, the mycelium of the pathogen is reported to survive in this tissue for up to 10 months, even if it has been air dried. A tree grown from seed may take 20 years or more before it bears fruits, but a grafted cultivar such as 'Marron de Lyon' or 'Paragon' may start production within five years of being planted. Edible chestnuts or Sweet chestnuts (European chestnut (Castanea sativa); American chestnut (Castanea dentata)), but not horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum (also called Buckeye)), are safe to consume raw with few or no side effects. Discover The Sweet Chestnut Share a family meal or a quiet dinner at The Sweet Chestnut in Dunfermline. [20] Indeed, no center of sweet chestnut cultivation outside the Italian peninsula in Roman times has been detected. The bark is smooth and greyish-green when young, becoming … They can also be used in confections, puddings, desserts and cakes. Credit: Martin Fowler / Alamy Stock Photo. [13] Compared to other crops, the sweet chestnut was probably of relatively minor importance and distributed very heterogeneously throughout these regions. 1 (1768). White lenticels (breathing pores) may be seen on young twigs / shoots. On this two day course led by Nick McMillen; students will be shown how to prepare bark and then to weave a small foraging basket with a steam bent chestnut handle. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) VAT No. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, and develops vertical fissures with age. Sweet chestnut is a deciduous tree which can reach 35m when mature and live for up to 700 years. The seeds develop inside the prickly, green seed cases.Identified in winter by: the bark which has fissures that spiral upwards around the tree. Sweet chestnut is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers are found on the same tree. 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust. It is thought to have survived the last Ice Age in several refuges in southern Europe, on the southern coast of the Black Sea with a main centre on the southern slope of the Caucasus and in the region of north-western Syria, possibly extending into Lebanon. However, the ancient Greeks dedicated the sweet chestnut to Zeus and its botanical name Castanea comes from Castonis, a Town in Thessaly in Greece where the tree was grown for its nuts. ", "Technological Parameters of Water Curing Affect Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Marrons (Castanea Sativa Mill., Marrone Fiorentino)", An easy way of peeling the pellicle, or pithy skin, "Chemical composition of chestnut cultivars from Spain", "Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants", European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Castanea_sativa&oldid=991269411, Articles with limited geographic scope from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [5] Their large genetic diversity and different cultivars are exploited for uses such as flour, boiling, roasting, drying, sweets or wood. In Switzerland, it is often served as Vermicelles. GB520 6111 04. There is very little mythology surrounding the sweet chestnut in the UK, probably because it was introduced. [30] The aim of this practice is to limit the main storage problems threatening the sweet chestnut: fungi development and the presence of insect worms. Record all sweet chestnut … [12] Several Greek authors wrote about medicinal properties of the sweet chestnut, specifically as a remedy against lacerations of the lips and of the oesophagus. It's an A-Z tree guide in your pocket. Chestnuts are traditionally roasted in their tough brown husks after removing the spiny cupules in which they grow on the tree, the husks being peeled off and discarded and the hot chestnuts dipped in salt before eating them. Typically a veteran sweet chestnut will be 150-300 years of age and a notable sweet chestnut may be 100-200 years old. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. The flowers of Sourwood can be mistaken for chestnut at a distance. [33][34][35] Sweet chestnut is also appreciated in a gluten-free diet. List of various diseases cured by Sweet Chestnut. [12] Carbonised sweet chestnuts were found in the Roman Villa Torre Annunziata, destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. [25] Low temperature in autumn can damage the fruit. [27] The optimal pH value of the soil is between 4.5 and 6, and the tree cannot tolerate soil compaction. [8], Tannin is found in the following proportions on a 10% moisture basis: bark (6.8%), wood (13.4%), seed husks (10 - 13%). Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Bark on young trees is a dull silvery purple, with vertical cracks. Figure 2 shows, by both MTT (a) and flow cytometry analysis (b), that CSM extract did not exert any toxic effect on cultured primary … 7 in Anatolia, northeastern Greece and southeastern Bulgaria. The Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) was probably introduced to Britain by the Romans. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house. The bark often has a net-shaped (retiform) pattern with deep furrows or fissures running spirally in both directions up the trunk. It is a native of northern and central parts of Asia, from … Sweet chestnut is native to southern Europe, western Asia and north Africa. Regarding mineral content, the chestnut provides a good source for Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and K.[39] Its sugar content ranges from 14% to 20% dry weight depending on the cultivar;[45] which is very important, since the sensory appeal of sweet chestnut is correlated with its sugar content. Delivery is free. [25] Harvest time is between middle of September and middle of November. Furthermore, a visual sorting is not possible. It is often found in parkland as a specimen tree with a smooth grey bark and long dark green toothed leaves which contrast with the long, yellowish spring catkins. [15] Nonetheless, until the end of the pre-Christian era, the spread and use of the chestnut in Italy remained limited. [12] Widespread use of chestnut in western Europe started in the early Middle Ages and flourished in the late Middle Ages. What do Chestnuts look Like? Registered in England No. The cooked nuts can be used for stuffing poultry, as a vegetable or in nut roasts. A non-profit-making company limited by guarantee. In southeast England, sweet chestnut is coppiced to produce poles.Unlike the nuts of the horse chestnut, those of the sweet chestnut are edible to humans and can be roasted and used in a variety of recipes, including stuffing for poultry, cake fillings, nut roasts and much more. The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. The timber has a density of 560 kg per cubic meter,[55] and due to its durability in ground contact is often used for external purposes such as fencing. ), is an entirely different tree from the Sweet Chestnut, to which it is not even distantly related, and is of much more recent importation to English soil. Credit: Wendy Johnson / Alamy Stock Photo. It is thought to have been introduced to the British Isles by the Romans and today can be found commonly throughout the UK in woods and copses, especially in parts of southern England where it is still managed to form large areas of coppice. Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited, registered in England (No. By hand with nets: This technique is less time-consuming and protects the fruits from injuries. The Woodland Trust and Woodland Trust Nature Detectives logos are registered trademarks. These are catkins fully developed with burs that are ready to be pollinated. Look out for: widely spaced teeth around the edges of leaves. Photograph: Ana Pérez-Sierra, Forest Research Chestnut blight canker Signs and symptoms The fruit yield per tree is usually between 30–100 kg, but can get as high as 300 kg. Note the diseased bark is still fairly smooth but has longitudinal cracks. Oxidative Damage. Introduced by the Romans and a roasted winter treat. Leaves are oblong with a pointed tip and toothed or serrated edge. In winter one of the easiest trees to identify is the Sweet Chestnut. Autumn leaf identification quiz: can you identify these 10 trees? Those ba… Epub … It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. Flowers: Some catkins have male and female flowers on the same stalk. 1982873. No other evidence of sweet chestnut in Roman Britain has been confirmed. [12] Theophrastus focuses mainly on the use of sweet chestnut wood as timber and charcoal, only mentioning the use of the fruit once when commenting on the digestive difficulties it causes, but praising its nourishing quality. A lovely thought, in late summer early autumn the chestnuts ripen to full size,some bursting out of the spiky cases.The chestnuts we buy in shops today are usually imported from France or … Image of foliage, form, texture - 129118645 [32] The Latin sativa means "cultivated by humans". Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. A local variety of Corsican beer also uses chestnuts. [citation needed]. But the younger chestnut tree has a smoother bark. Making a basket from sweet chestnut bark 1 This entry was posted in Bushcraft Skills Woodland Skills on 29/05/2017 by Gary (updated 409 days ago) We’ve recently held our Cordage & Containers course and so took the opportunity to get some photos of the process involved in making a sweet chestnut bark basket. By hand: The sweet chestnuts are harvested by rake or broom, with a harvest speed of 5 to 30 kg every hour depending on the soil relief. There is also a small risk of transmission by fruits or seeds.Locally, the spores of C. parasitica are spread by wind and water, but might a… The Horse Chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum, which has also been known as Hippocastanum vulgare (Gaertn. [7] The sweet chestnut is naturallyself incompatible, meaning that the plant cannot pollinate itself, making cross-pollination necessary. The nuts are a valuable food source for many mammals. Sweet Chestnut is monoecious: it has separate male and female flowers. Bark: Its bark has long diagonal fissures. [28] It is a heat-loving tree which needs a long vegetation period. [55] It is also a good fuel, though not favoured for open fires as it tends to spit. This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate.

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