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documenting software architecture

A Template for Documenting Software and Firmware Architectures Version 1.3, 15-Mar-00 Michael A. Ogush, Derek Coleman, Dorothea Beringer Hewlett-Packard Product Generation Solutions mike_ogush@hp.com derek_coleman@hp.com dorothea_beringer@hp.com Abstract This paper defines a template for producing architectural documentation. I made this decision because, we may want to trigger the command manually too. It is still very alpha because of the missing information, but also because it is not flexible when it comes to the code base it needs to analyse but, from the codebase of the company where I currently work at, it can generate something like this: If you are curious about the project, you can check it out here, however be advised that it is still very alpha, its just a proof of concept and I haven’t worked on it for a few months already. Noté /5. Achetez et téléchargez ebook Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond (SEI Series in Software Engineering) (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - Design & Architecture : Amazon.fr 2. Based on the authors' extensive experience, Documenting Software Architectures helps you decide what information to document, and then, with guidelines and examples (in various notations, including UML), shows you how to express an architecture in a form that everyone can understand. We always need to understand the tools, and use no more and no less than what we need. At this level of granularity, we will see the containers of the application, where a container is any independent technical piece of the application, for example a mobile app, an API or a database. Are there tools you recommend? I see elements of this in the color-codings of the Application Map. We learn how to code and we build some cool applications, and then we learn about architecture and how to make the application maintainable for several years…. The colours represent different layers in the application, in accordance with the layers I wrote about in previous blog posts: The intention of this diagram is to visualize and make sure that the code in each layer can only depend on the layers inner or below it. Yes, i do, but there must always be some way of detecting what types of code we have. It would try to be a pure function and leave details like saving the post somewhere to other modules. Now, we zoom into our application, the blue square in the diagram above which maps to the dashed square in the diagram below. For example, if we want our events to be serializable, so that we can put them in a queue, we probably don’t want them to contain an entity because it would be problematic to unserialize it and persist it using an ORM. For me, the most important thing for a template is that it’s simple, and it has some documentation in it to help fill it in and even to help make pragmatical and unbiased decisions. Keep going! You can find the configuration used to generate them in the repository root. In the User component, we can see that when a post is created, its author is automatically subscribed to that post subjects (tags). – you need to provide an activity diagram for all use cases in your system. CCP – The Common Closure Principle – Classes that change together are packaged together Do note, however, that I added the colours myself as to make it easier to read in this blog post. So now I’m starting to use more services that I reuse accross my command handlers until I find a better solution to organize/structure my events. series of posts about Software Architecture, https://java-design-patterns.com/patterns/strategy, Architectural Blueprints—The “4+1” View Model of Software Architecture, https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Xe5erulKsdaha3uwU6tNWsAWxjQK-Rcrr_iJeOCXuSQ/edit?usp=sharing, Joel Parker Henderson github repository about ADRs, https://github.com/hgraca/explicit-architecture-php, Java Annotated Monthly – September 2019 | IntelliJ IDEA Blog, Documenting Software Architecture – Trần Ngọc Minh Notes, Documenting Software Architecture — @herbertograca – ianwattsblog, Documenting Software Architecture – Notes de Francis, Dew Drop – August 23, 2019 (#3016) | Morning Dew, http://www.codingthearchitecture.com/2015/03/08/package_by_component_and_architecturally_aligned_testing.html, https://github.com/ebbypeter/Archimate-PlantUML, http://www.idesign.net/Training/Architect-Master-Class, Documenting Software Architecture – Ameer Academy, Lean Architecture by James Coplien and Gertrud Bjornvig, Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture by Martin Fowler, Patterns Principles and Practices of Domain-Driven Design by Scott Millett and Nick Tune, The mythical man-month by Frederick P. Brooks, DDD, Hexagonal, Onion, Clean, CQRS, … How I put it all together, Microservices architecture: What the gurus say about it, Teams: building, managing, leading, performing, DDD Europe 2017: The 3 talks I most enjoyed, Dare to be Good Enough—You'll be Happier for it. The contents of this post might make more sense if you read the previous posts in this series. Basic Idea is to keep business logic isolated from the Input/Output and external libraries The Layer dependency diagram analyses the dependencies between layers, but within a layer there are still dependencies that must not occur. Software Architecture in Practice Second Edition Bass.book Page i Thursday, March 20, 2003 7:21 PM Third Edition . The C4 model was introduced by Simon Brown, and it’s the best idea about software architecture documentation that I’ve come across so far. So, we can and should use UML, but for the situations it should be used: to describe patterns, small portions of an application in detail, or high granularity views of the application with low detail (not using class diagrams). Sometimes, if there is some, it’s out-of-date, inap-propriate and basically not very useful. The future of software development will involve self-documenting architectures that are easier to learn, easier to evolve, and maybe will even partially design themselves. Some research to do . That’s why I have the “OpenOrderCommand”, and it can be triggered manually or by an event handler. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Documenting Software Architectures in an Agile World July 2003 • Technical Note Paul C. Clements, James Ivers, Reed Little, Robert Nord, Judith A. Stafford. Architecture must be documented in a good amount of detail and should be presented in … This is very valuable because it tells us, or any non technical person, what each component can do. If you want to explore this subject more, I recommend heading to the Joel Parker Henderson github repository about ADRs. Furthermore, if we try to use one single class diagram to express the whole application we are asking for trouble. For that we need to either know the application very well from the user perspective, or the codebase from the developer perspective. There are three limitations I see in these diagrams: I have found two categories of diagrams that can help us with that. Software architecture has become a widely accepted conceptual basis for the development of nontrivial software in all application areas and by organizations of all sizes. Documenting software architectures: views and beyond Abstract: This lecture maps the concepts and templates explored in this tutorial with well-known architectural prescriptions, including the 4+1 approach of the Rational Unified Process, the Siemens Four Views approach, and the ANSI/IEEE-1471-2000 recommended best practice for documenting architectures for software-intensive systems. I’ll quickly explain the main idea in my own words, although using his own example diagrams. The idea is to use 4 different granularity (or zoom) levels for documenting software architecture: 1. SomeUseCase.SomeCommand.class I don’t think Application Map would work well in a functional paradigm, where the focus is on the data that is being transformed, not components exchanging events or dependencies. These services are relevant because, for example, they trigger an event or are used directly by another component. On the other hand, a “Billing” module is a component because it deals with domain concerns. By listener I mean a class whose public methods are all independently triggered by only one type of event, they focus on the event. “Application Map” is something truly important in this profession, as developers come and go but knowledge must stay. If we have a monolithic application with fully decoupled components, it will be fairly easy (code wise) to transform it into a Microservice Architecture. The difference between modules and components is that a module is any modular piece of the application, while a component is a domain wise module of the application. That’s why i mention that we would need some way to analyze only the use case we need. Next, in each component, we list any relevant services. and it only concern the domain part. An ADR is a log entry about the architecture decisions that have been made and that lead to the state of the architecture as it is now or as it is intended to be in the future. The best is to use it as the starting point for the discussion, as an RFC (Request For Comments), which is an idea/proposal that we submit to the other members of the team/department requesting their input/opinion/approval. large-scale software development project. In this new series, learn why and And because of that, the document won’t need to change much either. This report compares the Software Engineering Institute's Views and Beyond approach for documenting software architectures with the documentation philosophy embodied in agile software-development methods. This is important because the application map should make visible the connections between components as well as what they mean and any followup side effects, and for this we need to expose the services that wiring to other components and their names (which should express what they do). A software architecture document is a high-level map. In order for this to work, the system needs to be correctly decomposed into components. Core.Component.Application.Listener.WhateverListener.class But then the question remains, how do we document a full application?! Furthermore, applying the same decoupling requirements to the other non domain wise modules, we can guarantee that we can easily replace any module. Ideally, the namespaces/folder structure should communicate that on its own. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. So, the tool used to generate these diagrams should also be usable as a testing tool and included in our CI pipeline, just like unit tests are, preventing unwanted dependencies to reach production, which maintains and enforces modularity, which in turn helps reach high changeability rate and therefore high velocity of feature development. Don't put data science notebooks into production. Noté /5. Furthermore, it will take so much time to create it, that when we are finished, it will probably be outdated already because someone will have made changes to the code in the mean time. I have a similar architecture (decoupled, hexagonal, clean etc.) You will learn about the five The most fine grained diagram, aimed at describing the code structure inside a component. To solve the second problem, we need to be able to selectively generate only part of the diagram. I’ll second the recommendation of Juval Lowy’s Architect’s Master Class: In my experience, on our line of work, all type of documentation gets outdated. In Juval’s class, it’s applied at the Service/Component level. ( Log Out /  If this application had a Microservices Architecture, these two components would be the microservices. In this context, each component is a module of the application, not restricted to domain wise modules (ie. How do you mitigate the cost of generation? No human will understand such a map generated for a mid-to-large sized system. Following the services, we list all the event listeners in each component, even if they are not actually used, which is handy because then we can detect it and either fix whatever needs to be fixed or remove the unused code. With this type of diagram, or more accurately with the tool to test dependencies, we can easily detect such cases and prevent them from reaching production. Software architectures, by definition, won’t change much over time. domain.handlers.subdomain.MySubdomainEventHandler.class. It’s common for there to be little or no documentation covering the architec-ture in many projects. This first article in the series domain.commandhandlers.subdomain.MySubdomainCommandHandler.class However, the example below is not so useful… It’s very big, so it gets confusing and difficult to follow. The heart of the book is an introduction to the most relevant architectural views, grouped into three major families (which we call viewtypes ) along with practical guidance about how to write them down. probably not…. You can, and maybe should, create yours as well, one that makes sense to you and your team. But, when used in a big application, this diagram will still have problems common to the previously mentioned diagrams: To solve the first problem, we need to be able to generate the diagram from the code, on-demand. Simple. The application map looks very interesting, and specifically for events and events handler. I like to use event/event handler when I do things that are not strictly related to the original handler or that can be done asynchronously (like sending email/notification) or when different commands have the same consequences. Now we have the information about the flow within a component, but we are still lacking the information about cross component flow, so lets add the events being triggered and listened to: With all this information in our map, we can navigate it. Stakeholders and the Communication Needs Served by Architecture The content is provided “as is.” Given the rapid evolution of technology, some content, steps, or illustrations may have changed. It has little detail but its main goal is to describe the context in which the application is. This article is very helpful to understand Hexagonal architecture as well, but still I am not able to make it link with my requirement. Date archived: November 8, 2016 | First published: June 27, 2008. In the image below, we can see that deleting a post (“DeletePost”) will trigger the deletePost() method in the PostService, which is also triggered by a listener listening to the event that notifies that a user has been deleted. Deleting a user will trigger an event that will delete the users’ posts; Creating a post will trigger the event that will lead to both subscribing the author to the posts’ subjects and increasing the authors rating; Deleting a post, from whatever use case, triggers an event that will result in decreasing that authors’ rating. The Class dependency diagram is useful to analyse the dependencies between the different types of class we have in our codebase, specially if they are in the same layer. In the case of the examples I have below, they were all generated by deptrac for my pet project (explicit-architecture-php), which I use for experimenting. Where do you place your event handler in your code ? Now I’m thinking about allowing the event handlers to have access to services/repositories/entities like the command handler. However when we need to explain to someone else (new developer, product owner, investor, …) how the application works, we need something more… we need documentation. The intention is really to use it to start a discussion, brainstorm, make the best decision possible, and use the proposal document itself as the decision log entry (ADR). This tells us that our application deletes posts as a result of either a direct command from a user or when a post author has been deleted. You have the right idea that we need to document the dynamic behavior of the system and it would be nice to have a tool that automatically generates this. First published: April 15, 2008. CRP – The Common Reuse Principle – Classes that are used together are packaged together. It was the difficulty to understand what code was being executed as a result of events that made me come up with the Application Map idea. However, to document a whole application architecture using UML we need to use several types of diagrams. Two different kinds of architectural … Documenting Software Architectures, Second Edition, provides the most complete and current guidance, independent of language or notation, on how to capture an architecture in a … Documenting architecture is an important part of software development. Note, in the diagram below, how the modules in the same layer (nodes with the same colour) are all unaware of each other, at least directly. Three complementary views lay the foundation. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Once your documentation is more oriented toward use-cases rather than static allocations, you can focus on dynamic aspects such as transaction, identity, authentication, and authorization boundaries. What would be usefull is to have a list of all event handlers handling an event each time the events is referenced or emitted in the source code (like search for reference in IDE)…, I will try to reorganize my package, maybe by merging CommandHandlers and EventHandlers in the same business package (they are very similar after all). The Application Map is aimed at being truly a map of the application, defining its “cities” (Components), its “local roads” (use cases), “highways” (events), etc. The same goes for events that would just be put on a queue by the source. A component is a domain wise module, a module that contains both Application and Domain layers. This post is part of The Software Architecture Chronicles, a series of posts about Software Architecture. Level 1: System Context diagram 2. and same with output – response call back to Client service, File store and Database, Input from all these apis will be first converted to Intermediate object -> then this IO will be processed by actual application -> Response will be put as JSON, File or Database. For this level, we use an UML diagram with class level artefacts. The previous diagrams don’t tell us what use cases we have in the application, nor what events are triggered by what use cases, nor what are the consequences of those events. However, the application map you show, is for a very small system and it’s already unusable. Components can be mapped to DDD bounded contexts and/or Microservices, which means they must be completely decoupled, physically and temporally, from other components. The Architecture Decision Records (ADR) are actually not really about documenting the current, or future, state of an application architecture, but instead the reasons that led to it. Maybe we just need an application map per command. it. Documenting Software Architectures Software architecture has become a widely accepted conceptual basis for the development of nontrivial software in all application areas and by organizations of all sizes. different views, or aspects, that you should document for any medium- to Very nice article! They are specially important because they intend to tell others, and our future selves, why the architecture is what it is. ( Log Out /  Also, when I see the size of your application map, it looks way to big and unreadable. also get an overview of the architecture views that will be covered in If we show those diagrams to a Product Owner, he will find them mostly useless for his role. An Application Map starts by defining the components of the application, the domain wise modules, like “Billing”, “User”, “Company”, “Orders”, “Products”, and so on. The Component dependencies diagram is aimed at making sure that the application components and modules are decoupled. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The handbook, tentatively entitled Documenting Software Architectures, will be published in early 2002 by Addison Wesley Longman as part of the SEI Series on Software Engineering. At this point, we have all the components and their capabilities in the map. Software architecture has increasingly become important for the From the developerWorks archives. The advantage of generated documentation is that we can generate it every time we need it, so basically removes tge issue of getting outdated. However, it still doesn’t tell us how all these capabilities relate to each other, for example “what happens as a consequence of a user creating a blog post?”. Although they are pretty good for the other diagrams. In this series, learn why and how you should document software architecture. ( Log Out /  37 6.1.10 Lecturer schedules a paper 38 6.1.11 Lecturer marks a paper 38 … Highly recommend taking Juval Lowy’s Architect’s Master Class, it teaches how to correctly decompose a system based on volatility and how to document it. In this new series, learn why and how you should document software architecture.

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