Proceedings of the African Intergovernmental Consultation on Sustainable Mountain Development. There is, however, still strong disagreement on how governments should intervene. Innovative mechanisms and promising examples, Legal rights to manage, use or own a particular piece of property or Industry, SEVENTH SESSION: 1999Sectoral theme. Of her mountain values, e.g. Clean air and biodiversity are classic examples. In the New York City Watershed Agricultural Program, with no increase in the price of water, the revenue generated from water use is reinvested in upstream farmers to protect the watershed. Therefore, unsustainable practices upstream necessarily affect those living below. Mountainous regions are called montane. Continental Collision- occurs when there is an island near a convergent boundary. United States, Exclusive legal rights to the production and sale of high-quality, locally Berkeley, USA, University of California Press. CSD work programme, 1998-2002: relevance to Chapter 13 of Agenda 21, SIXTH SESSION: 1998Sectoral theme. Tehri, India, Sri Bhuvaneshwari Mahila Ashram. funding, Mgahinga and Bwindi Impenetrable Forest Conservation Trust, Uganda, Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, Bhutan, Hard-currency debt of one country exchanged for conservation, or preservation, A business plan is a tool that provides communication, management and planning information to investors, employees, local communities and business owners (see reference 1). Since the first meeting of the ad hoc network in March 1994, there have been calls for an international technical meeting on mountains, to bring together recent and ongoing experiences and to continue to raise global awareness of the importance of mountains. Preston, L., ed. They are often rugged and filled with forests and wild animals, such as bears and wolves. The electronic conference, held in 1996, was hosted by the Mountain Forum, a global electronic network of individuals and organizations involved in mountain conservation and development. The endorsement of Chapter 13 of Agenda 21, entitled Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development, at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), acknowledged that mountains are often net exporters of globally significant natural resources to the lowlands below. As identified by the global NGO Consultation on the Mountain Agenda. right to develop a piece of property, Conservation easements in Vermont, United States, Legal rights to use water resources which can be traded on the market. The Alps are the youngest and highest mountain system in Europe. Learn and revise how developmental indicators such as GDP and GNP measure the standard of living and development of country with BBC Bitesize KS3 Geography. Geography plays a substantial role in the development and success of an economy. Oil producers will earn more revenue for their product. Many rural communities and small towns are facing challenges, including rapid growth at metropolitan edges, declining rural populations, and loss of farms and working lands.Slow-growing and shrinking rural areas might find that their policies are not bringi… With this incentive-based mechanism in place, actual value has been attached to watersheds, not only to the water resources, and unique partnerships have been formed. Bern, Mountain Agenda. 1984. TENTH SESSION: 2002Comprehensive review, including forestry, which is excluded from the above because it will be considered through an Intergovernmental Forum on Forests under the aegis of CSD. You and your friends could look into volunteering at local organizations, or give blood if you're old enough. New York, USA, Harper and Collins. Innovative mechanisms are needed to protect mountain ecosystems, to provide incentives for communities to continue in their stewardship roles and, ultimately, to maintain the very resources on which national and global populations depend. The goal of this report is to inform strategies that other communities and the federal government can use to improve economic outcomes for Canada's First Nations. Often the incentive structures are maintained by social inducements and "soft sanctions" that depend on peer pressure for compliance. They develop the available natural elements and transform them into ‘resources’ for use. How do you develop strategies? Sustainable Mountain Development is also the subject of Chapter 13 of Agenda 21, which notes that mountains are an important source of water, … and run by self-management, Cooperative Movement in Trentino Region, Italy, Credit and savings programmes for low-income people, Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, Pakistan, Strategies which enable communities to derive appropriate economic value Academy for Mountain Environics. El desarollo sostenible de montañas en América Latina. Consequently, mountain communities, as suppliers, do not derive appropriate benefits. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust, a seam where rocks can move past each other. Some mountain ranges, like the Himalayas, are still growing. The most successful plans are understandable to your key stakeholders and economic development officials. Global distribution of species diversity on vascular plants: towards a world map of phytodiversity. Countries deemed more developed than LDCs are called developed countries, while those less developed are known as less economically developed countries (LEDCs) or frontier markets. Price, M.F. Five Easy Steps to Develop a Country . Also known as rifting, this process occurs when rocks on one side of … Tourism and amenity migration. The incentives for individuals to act collectively rather than independently encourage stakeholders to return to the table whenever necessary to renegotiate fragile and tenuous partnerships and alliances. A train glides past Switzerland's snowcapped mountains, one way travelers can see the world while reducing their carbon footprint. Mountains of the world: a global priority, p. 157-170. An appeal for the mountains. A performance management system helps you develop a method for accurate and effective performance reviews that can help assess where performance stands, as well as provide a roadmap to where you want to go. For economic growth, the […] 1997. Tax cuts and rebates are used to return money to consumers and boost spending. Forestry is a key economic activity with the planting and harvesting of trees e.g. Well documented project results can help you in getting support from a range of stakeholders and donors. Consumption and production patternsEconomic sector/major group. Everyone will benefit. Undocumented immigrants pay an average of $11.64 billion in state and local taxes a year. The landforms have social, ecological, historical, political, and religious signific… For centuries mountain ecosystems and communities have played a critical role in maintaining a sustainable flow of mountain resources to the plains below. However, regional initiatives are also important, recognizing the great diversity of mountain environments around the world. Background paper in support of the global NGO Consultation on the Mountain Agenda. To create a low inflationary framework, it requires: 1. In the economic study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, local community, or an individual are improved according to targeted goals and objectives.. In the economic study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, local community, or an individual are improved according to targeted goals and objectives.. Fisher, J.F. Price, M.F. IDENTIFYING AND VALUING MOUNTAIN RESOURCES. 1996. But mountains can also form in other ways. Sherpas: reflections on changes in Himalayan Nepal. 1998. Lima, CONDESAN/CIP/FAO. In B. Messerli & J.D. Toulouse, France, ARPE/CIAPP. FAO, as Task Manager for Chapter 13, has a vital role in catalysing and linking these various initiatives, in collaboration with regional and global structures such as CIP, ICIMOD and the Mountain Forum. These revenues contribute to services that benefit all Canadians. For example, the cost of cutting a forest must include the full economic value of the trees, plus the relinquished benefits of clean air, pure water, wildlife habitat and other non-tangible values derived from that forest ecosystem. Download this stock image: Huoshan, China's Anhui Province. Furthermore, the market is not the universal determinant of values; lack of a monetary value does not mean lack of utility or aesthetic value. Prepare. The examples cited at the conference indicate that when social and environmental costs of resource use are a part of the cost-benefit calculation, users begin to understand the interrelationships of ecosystem well-being and to devise reinvestment schemes. Predicting global change impacts on mountain hydrology and ecology: integrated catchment hydrology/altitudinal gradient studies. Lynelle Preston is a programme officer at the Asian Regional Office of The Mountain Institute in Kathmandu, Nepal. Mountain Agenda. Developing countries are countries with economies that have a low gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and rely heavily on agriculture as the primary industry. A good view, however, can be a double-edged sword. The most common metric used to determine if an economy is developed or developing is per capita gross domestic product (GDP), although no strict … Mountain research in Europe: an overview of MAB research from the Pyrenees to Siberia. These factors should be incorporated into the design of mechanisms to ensure sustainable resource use in mountain areas. Some of the goods and services provided by mountain environments, e.g. London, Zed Books. biodiversity (United States), are more difficult to quantify. Increasing exports ranks among the highest priorities of any government wishing to stimulate economic growth. E-mail address: [email protected]. market, Mountain Protection Plan, Virginia, United States, Legal agreement which entails the sale or donation of a property owner's In an effort to examine the complex issue of flow and pricing of resources and services to and from mountain areas, The Mountain Institute, at the request of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) organized an electronic conference, entitled Investing in Mountains, to gather examples of innovative financing mechanisms used to reverse the downward flow of benefits. The conference and the report highlight a number of enabling conditions and characteristics relating to the social and economic policy which has contributed to the successful implementation of mechanisms. Moreover, all immigrants—regardless of status—will contribute approximately $80,000 more in taxes than government services used over their lifetime. 43. For example, deforestation destroys habitat, increases erosion and exacerbates global warming; overgrazing causes landslides; mining destroys sacred pilgrimage sites; and hydroelectric construction leads to serious siltation. Preston, L., ed. Mountain wood provides timber for local use and export. In B. Messerli & J.D. Communication and Outreach: Develop a strong communication strategy so that your project results can be shared with a large audience. A critical step in balancing the outflow of benefits with investment in mountain environments and people is to identify and measure the full economic value of various resources. You can help your reporting employees improve their current performance, or in the case of an already effective employee, help them become more effective. The electronic conference and report, Investing in Mountains, began with the premise that mountain resources are flowing downhill at unsustainable rates with little or no reinvestment in the resources or the mountain communities. SNEP. Synthesis of a Mountain Forum electronic conference in support of the Mountain Agenda. For more than one billion people, mountains are sacred places. Mountains of the world: a global priority, p. 249-280. The physical features of mountain environments are complex and so also are political and social associations. source of funding, Warm Springs Indian Reservation Trust, Oregon, United States, Wolf Compensation Fund, Rocky Mountains, United States, Use of private sector funds for conservation, Shore Trust Bank, Washington, United States, Recreational Equipment, Inc., United States, A fuller understanding of land-use and ownership patterns is fundamental for mountain conservation and development. ADVERTISEMENTS: Role of Natural Resources in Economic Development! As Narpat Jodha (1996) points out. For developing countries, the situation is more mixed and levels of protection generally remain higher than those in the industrial countries. 1996. It is not only the "development" and "conservation" NGOs that have interests in sustainable mountain development; increasingly, members of NGOs that are recreation-and tourism-based are recognizing the need to understand their impacts on mountain communities and environments. Therefore, ownership of one resource essentially establishes ownership of all rights, even those that were not factored into the original grant of the resource right. These include jails, courts, banks, and government – if people are easy corrupted in these institutions, it is nearly impossible to truly serve justice to the people being governed under them. When it comes to regions of the world, developing countries have not quite reached economic maturity, although there's a wide array of different definitions. Economic benefits are usually measured in monetary terms and may include: income from employment in the sector; the value of the production of goods and services from forests; and the contribution of the sector to the national economy, energy supplies and international trade. 1992. Later theorists have challenged this approach, emphasizing a "bottom-up" development paradigm, in which countries become self-sufficient through local efforts, and urban industry is not necessary. Mountain systems are defined by pluralism - by the complex assortment of stakeholders who share a common interest in sustainable mountain development. You could pay up to 30 percent more for roads, utilities, water, sewer and building foundations when you develop … For example, forested watersheds not only provide clean water and forest products, but they also provide habitat for wildlife and erosion control, recreational opportunities, clean air and, in many places, sacred significance for surrounding populations. As stated in the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) report of the third session: UN Commission on Sustainable DevelopmentReport, 1995, THE ROLE OF MOUNTAIN COMMUNITIES AS STEWARDS. Rural communities in developing countries are still faced with challenges related to access to basic services, economic opportunities and some degree of incoherence with regard to planning related to rural-urban divide. 1996. Beckhardt, L. 1996. Good drainage is important, as well as contour and grading. Economic factors are connected with goods, services, and money. Whether starting up a new ecotourism venture or changing the structure of an existing business, a business plan will help guide your efforts. Mountains and people. New York City Watershed Agricultural Program, United States. Mountains play a critical role in the water cycle by capturing moisture from air masses; when this precipitation falls as snow, it is stored until it melts in the spring and summer, providing essential water for settlements, agriculture and industries downstream - often during the period of lowest rainfall. 1995. And since international standards usually embed global best practices, the increased uptake of such standards can help promote sustainable development. 1. This may lead to a conclusion that conservation is the most efficient resource "use"; or alternatively, it may reveal the benefits of balancing resource extraction with the maintenance of existing environmental assets. 1996. In this role, FAO must also ensure that mountain issues remain on the global agenda through well-organized undertakings linked to activities associated with future sessions of CSD, the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests and the various relevant conventions on biological diversity, desertification and climate change. Transfer of technology, capacity-building, education, science, awareness-raisingEconomic sector/major group. In mountains such as the Andes and Himalayas, terraces (steps) have been cut into the hillsides to allow crops such as vines and fruit to be grown. Ways # 2. Further progress in ensuring that sustainable mountain development is not only a policy imperative but also a concept of practical relevance to all who depend on the mountains will require the mobilization and long-term commitment of stakeholders in all sectors worldwide. High inflation can lead to devaluation of the currency and discourage foreign investment. Mountains of the world: a global priority, p. 1-15. We'll walk through the process of developing strategies with this group so as to better explain the who, what, and why of strategies. Furthermore, while secure property rights may provide incentives for sustainable management, there may be no incentives to prevent downstream effects such as water polluted by runoff. Certain restrictions apply to the use of water, Fees charged by a government for use of a national resource, Mountaineering royalty fees in Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, Fees charged on entry into a protected area, Fees charged to the tour operator rather than the tourists. Chapter 13 has been the catalyst to much debate, and many governments and organizations have contributed significant financial and other resources to activities contributing to its implementation. Located in the Dabieshan Mountain region, Huoshan County makes use of its scenery to develop rural tourism economy. TABLE 1. Ultimately everyone pays, and everyone loses. Develop your plan! of globally significant natural resources, National Trust Fund for Protected Areas, Peru, Money invested by local community or organization to provide a long-term & Bugmann, H., eds. In developing countries, wood fuel from mountains is the main source of energy for settlements. Fold mountains are created where two or more of Earth’s tectonic plates are pushed together. The Appalachian Mountain range. The City was facing the possibility of being forced by the federal Environmental Protection Agency to install a water filtration system at a cost of US$6 billion. This may be organized in conjunction with an International Year of Mountains, which has been proposed by the Government of Kyrgyzstan. Networks such as the Mountain Forum will have a clear role to play in such initiatives. But even without Simpson Bowles, here are a few common-sense proposals which would reverse the “new normal” with policies focused on economic growth. Over 200 people from 23 different countries participated in the discussion. Small towns and rural communities throughout the United States are looking for ways to strengthen their economies, provide better quality of life, and build on local assets. It is interesting to note, as an aside, that in many cases the interests of the non-human stakeholders in mountain ecosystems are represented by members of NGOs or scientific projects, whose role is to provide objective assessment of environmental development. Price, M.F., Moss, L.A.G. E-mail sent to the Mountain Forum electronic conference. Yet information and networking are only the means to an end, and these and other resources must be carefully coordinated and harnessed, building on the long-established role of mountains as cradles of innovation. Examples of continental collision on Earth are the Himalayan Mountains and the alps.